A great place to start is the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights. This was seen (by some) as an alternative to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Of course it does not speak for all of Islam, and it does not speak for everyone in a Member state, but it provides some insight on the issue.
It has a decent wikipedia page for background, but the full text of the Cairo Declaration is here:
It affirms at the outset that it is a Document on Human Rights in Islam that will serve as a guide for Member states in all aspects of life.
Moving on from the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights, Ayatollah Khomeinei states that the basic fundamental rights are: the right to live, the right to be free, the right to benefit from justice, the right to welfare.
www.iranchamber.com/history/akhamenei/works/human_right_islam.pdf (see page 7)
Lastly, I'd like to link to this site, which uses a great deal of scripture and Quran references to develop the author's positions on human rights, and it is a good summary.
Of particular note for this week is the Rights of Enemy Combatants, as we will be discussing war.